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世界历史/地理 I & II

WORLD HISTORY I


Concept 1: Research Skills for History 
 
PO 1. Interpret historical data displayed in maps, graphs, tables, charts, and geologic time scales. 
PO 2. Distinguish among dating methods that yield calendar ages (e.g., dendrochronology), numerical ages (e.g., radio carbon), correlate d ages (e.g., volcanic ash), and relative ages (e.g., geologic time). 
PO 3. Formulate question s that can be answered by historical study and research. 
PO 4. Construct graphs, tables, timelines, charts, and narratives to interpret historical data. 
PO 5. Evaluate primary and secondary sources for: a. authors’ main points b. purpose and perspective c. facts vs. opinions d. different points of view on the same historical event (e.g., Geography Concept 6 – geographical perspective can be different from economic perspective) e. credibility and validity 
PO 6. Apply the skills of historical analysis to current social, political, geographic, and economic issues facing the world. 
PO 7. Compare present events with past events: a. cause and effect b. change over time c. different points of view. 

_____________________ 

 Concept 2: Early Civilizations


PO 1. Describe the development of early prehistoric people, their agriculture, and settlements.  
PO 2. Analyze the development and historical significance of Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. 
PO 3. Analyze the enduring Greek and Roman contributions and their impact on later civilization: a. development of concepts of government and citizenship (e. g., democracy, republics, codification of law, and development of empire) b. scientific and cultural advancements (e.g., network of roads, aqueducts, art and architecture, literature and theater, mathematics, and philosophy) 
PO 4. Analyze the enduring Chinese contributions and their impact on other civilizations: a. development of concepts of government and citizenship (e.g., Confucianism, empire) b. scientific, mathematical, and technical advances (e.g., roads, aqueducts) c. cultural advancements in art, architecture, literature, theater, and philosophy.
 ___________________ 

Concept 3: World in Transition 


PO 1. Contrast the fall of Rome with the development of the Byzantine and Arab Empires (e.g., religion, culture, language, governmental structure). 
PO 2. Compare feudalism in Europe and Japan and its connection with religious and cultural institutions. 
PO 3. Compare the development of empires (e.g., Roman, Han, Mali, Incan/Inkan, Ottoman) throughout the world. 
PO 4. Describe the interaction of European and Asian civilizations from the 12th to the 16th centuries: a. Crusades b. commerce and the Silk Road c. impact on culture d. plague
 _____________________ 

 Concept 4: Renaissance and Reformation


PO 1. Analyze the results of Renaissance thoughts and theories: a. rediscovery of Greek and Roman ideas b. humanism and its emphasis on individual potential and achievements c. scientific approach to the natural world d. Middle Eastern contributions (e.g., mathematics, science) e. innovations in the arts and sciences. 
PO 2. Explain how the ideas of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation (e.g., secular authority, individualism, migration, literacy and vernacular, the arts) affected society.
 ____________________ 

Concept 5: Encounters and Exchange 


PO 1. Describe the religious, economic, social, and political interactions among civilizations that resulted from early exploration: a. reasons for European exploration b. impact of expansion and colonization on Europe c. impact of expansion and colonization on Africa, the Americas, and Asia d. role of disease in conquest e. role of trade f. navigational technology g. impact and ramifications of slavery and international slave trade h. contrasting motivations and methods for colonization


WORLD HISTORY II


Concept 6: Age of Revolution 


PO 1. Contrast the development of representative, limited government in England with the development and continuation of absolute monarchies in other European Nations: a. absolute monarchies (e.g., Louis XIV, Peter the Great, Philip II) b. the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and parliamentary government c. the ideas of John Locke 
PO 2. Explain how new ideas (i.e., Heliocentrism, Scientific Method, Newton’s Laws) changed the way people understood the world. 
PO 3. Explain how Enlightenment ideas influenced political thought and social change: a. Deism b. role of women c. political thought d. social change 
PO 4. Analyze the developments of the French Revolution and rule of Napoleon: a. Reign of Terror b. rise of Napoleon c. spread of nationalism in Europe d. defeat of Napoleon and Congress of Vienna 
PO 5. Explain the revolutionary and independence movements in Latin America (e.g., Mexico, Haiti, South America). 
PO 6. Analyze the social, political, and economic development and impact of the Industrial Revolution: a. origins in England’s textile and mining industries b. urban growth and the social impact of industrialization c. unequal spread of industrialization to other countries d. political and economic theories (nationalism, anarchism, capitalism, socialism) 
______________________ 

Concept 7: Age of Imperialism 


PO 1. Explain the rationale (e.g., need for raw materials, domination of markets, advent of national competition, spread of European culture/religion) for imperialism. 
PO 2. Trace the development of the British Empire around the world (e.g., America, Southeast Asia, South Pacific, India, Africa, the Suez). 
PO 3. Describe the division of the world into empires and spheres of influence during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., British, French, Dutch, Spanish, American, Belgian). 
PO 4. Analyze the effects of European and American colonialism on their colonies (e.g., artificially drawn boundaries, one crop economies, creation dependence, population relocation, cultural suppression). 
PO 5. Analyze the responses to imperialism (e.g., Boxer Rebellion, Sepoy Rebellion, Opium Wars, Zulu Wars) by people under colonial rule at the end of the 19th century. 
PO 6. Explain Japanese responses to European/American imperialism from a closed door policy to adoption of Euro-American ideas.

 

Concept 8: World at War


PO 1. Examine the causes of World War I: a. rise of nationalism in Europe b. unification of Germany and Otto Von Bismarck’s leadership c. rise of ethnic and ideological conflicts - the Balkans, Austria Hungary, the decline of the Ottoman Empire 
PO 2. Analyze the impact of the changing nature of warfare in World War I: a. trench warfare b. mechanization of war – machine gun, gasoline, submarine, tanks, chemical c. American involvement 
PO 3. Explain the end of World War I and its aftermath: a. Russian Revolution b. Treaty of Versailles c. end of empires (e.g., Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian) d. continuation of colonial systems (e.g., French Indochina, India, Philippines) 
PO 4. Examine the period between World War I and World War II: a. rise of fascism and dictatorships b. postwar economic problems c. new alliances d. growth of the Japanese empire e. challenges to the world 
PO 5. Analyze aspects of World War II: a. political ideologies (e.g., Totalitarianism, Democracy) b. military strategies (e.g., air warfare, atomic bomb, Russian front, concentration camps) c. treatment of civilian populations d. Holocaust 
PO 6. Examine genocide as a manifestation of extreme nationalism in the 20th century (e.g., Armenia, Holocaust, Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo and Sudan). 
PO 7. Analyze the political, economic and cultural impact of the Cold War: a. superpowers – Soviet Union, United States, China b. division of Europe c. developing world d. Korean and Vietnam Wars 

PO 8. Compare independence movements of emerging nations (e.g., Africa, Asia, Middle East, Latin America). __________________


 Concept 9: Contemporary World


PO 1. Explain the fall of the Soviet Union and its impact on the world.
PO 2. Explain the roots of terrorism: a. background and motives b. religious conflict (e.g., Northern d. economic and political inequities and cultural insensitivities 
PO 3. Describe the development of political and economic interdependence during the second half of the twentieth century: a. economics, global wag e inequalities b. technology c. multinational corporations d. growth of international govern mental organizations (e.g., World Trade Organization) e. growth of nongovernmental organizations (e.g., Red Cross, Red Crescent) 
PO 4. Examine environmental issues from a global perspective (e.g., pollution, population pressures, global warming, scarcity of resources). Ireland, Chechnya, Southwestern Philippines, southern Thailand, Kashmir) c. background of modern Middle East conflicts (e.g., Israeli – Palestinian conflict, Persian Gulf conflicts, Afghanistan). 
PO 5. Connect current events with historical events and issues using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

GEOGRAPHY


Concept 1: The World in Spatial Terms


PO 1. Construct maps using appropriate elements (i.e., date, orientation, grid, scale, title, author, index, legend, situation). 
PO 2. Interpret maps and images (e.g., political, physical, relief, thematic, Geographic Information Systems [GIS], Landsat). 
PO 3. Use appropriate maps and other graphic representations to analyze geographic problems and changes over time. 

PO 4. Use an atlas to access information. _________________ 


Concept 2: Places and Regions 


PO 1. Identify the characteristics that define a region: a. physical processes such as climate, terrain, and resources b. human processes such as religion, political organization, economy, and demo graphics 
PO 2. Describe the factors (e.g., demographics, political systems, economic systems, resources, culture) that contribute to the variations between developing and developed regions.
 PO 3. Examine geographic issues (e.g., drought in Sahel, migration patterns, desertification of Aral Sea, spread of religions such as Islam, conflicts in Northern Ireland/Ireland, Jerusalem, Tibet) in places and world regions. 
PO 4. Analyze the differing political, religious, economic, demographic, and historical ways of viewing places and regions. 
PO 5. Examine how the geographic characteristics of a place affect the economics and culture (e.g., changing regional economy of the sunbelt, location with respect of natural hazards, location of Panama Canal, Air Force Bases in Arizona). 
PO 6. Analyze how a region changes over time (e.g., U.S./Mexico border, Europe from World War I to the development of European Union, change from pre- to post-colonialism in Africa, Hon g Kong). 

PO 7. Analyze sides of scientific debates over h o w human actions (e.g., global warming, o z one decline) modify a region.


Concept 3: Human Systems 


PO 1. Interpret population growth and demographics (e.g., birth and death rates, population growth rates, doubling time and expectancy, carrying capacity). 
PO 2. Analyze push/pull factors that contribute to human migration. 
PO 3. Analyze the effects of migration on places of origin and destination, including border areas. 
PO 4. Analyze issues of globalization (e.g., widespread use of English, the role of the global media, resistance to “cultural imperialism  
PO 5. Analyze the development, growth, and changing nature of cities (e.g., urban sprawl, suburbs, city revitalization). 
PO 6. Analyze factors (e.g., social, biotic, abiotic) that affect human populations. 
PO 7. Predict the effect of a change in a specific factor (e.g., social, biotic, abiotic) on a human population. 
PO 8. Explain how ideas, customs, and innovations (e.g., religion, language, political philosophy, technological advances, higher education, economic principles) are spread through cultural diffusion. ____________________ 


Concept 4: Environment and Society


 PO 1. Analyze how the Earth’s natural systems (e.g., Gulf Stream permitting habitation of northern Europe earthquakes, tsunamis, periodic droughts, river civilizations) affect humans. 
PO 2. Analyze how natural hazards imp act humans (e.g., differences in disaster preparation between developed and developing nations, why people continue to build in disaster-prone places). 
PO 3. Analyze how changes in the natural environment can increase or diminish its capacity to support human activity (e.g., major droughts, warm and cold periods, volcanic eruptions, El Niño events, pollution). 
PO 4. Analyze the environmental effects of human use of technology (e.g., irrigation, deforestation, overgrazing, global warming, atmospheric and climate changes, energy production costs and benefits, water management) on the environment.  
PO 5. Analyze how humans impact the diversity and productivity of ecosystems (e.g., invading non-native plants and animals). 
PO 6. Analyze policies and programs for resource use and management (e.g., the trade-off between environmental quality and economic growth in the twentieth century). 
PO 7. Predict how a change in an environmental factor (e.g., extinction of species, volcanic eruptions) can affect an ecosystem. 
____________________ 


Concept 5: Geographic Applications

 

PO 1. Analyze how geographic knowledge, skills, and perspectives (e.g., use of Geographic Information Systems in urban planning, reapportionment of political units, locating businesses) are used to solve contemporary problems. 
PO 2. Analyze how changing perceptions of places and environments (e.g., where individuals choose to live and work, Israeli settlements, role of military bases, Viking colonization and naming of Iceland) affect the choices of people and institutions.
 PO 3. Analyze how geography influences historical events and movements (e.g., Trail of Tears, Cuban Missile Crisis, location of terrorist camps, pursuit of Pancho Villa, Mao’s long march, Hannibal crossing the Alps, Silk Road)