Concept 1: Research Skills for History

PO 1. Interpret historical data displayed in maps, graphs, tables, charts, and geologic time scales. 
PO 2. Distinguish among dating methods that yield calendar ages (e.g., dendrochronology), numerical ages (e.g., radio carbon), correlate d ages (e.g., volcanic ash), and relative ages (e.g., geologic time). 
PO 3. Formulate question s that can be answered by historical study and research. 
PO 4. Construct graphs, tables, timelines, charts, and narratives to interpret historical data. 
PO 5. Evaluate primary and secondary sources for: a. authors’ main points b. purpose and perspective c. facts vs. opinions d. different points of view on the same historical event (e.g., Geography Concept 5– geographical perspective can be different from economic perspective) e. credibility and validity 
PO 6. Apply the skills of historical analysis to current social, political, geographic, and economic issues facing the world. 
PO 7. Compare present events with past events: a. cause and effect b. change over time c. different points of view


Concept 2: Early Civilizations

PO 1. Describe Prehistoric Cultures of the North American continent: a. Paleo-Indians, including Clovis, Folsom, and Plano b. Moundbuilders, including Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian c. Southwestern, including Mogollon, Hohokam, and Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi) 
Concept 3: Exploration and Colonization
PO 1. Review the reciprocal impact resulting from early European contact with indigenous peoples: a. religious (e.g., conversion attempts) b. economic (e. g., land disputes, trade) c. social (e.g., spread of disease, partnerships) d. food (e.g., corn) e. government (e.g., Iroquois Confederacy, matriarch al leadership, democratic influence) 
PO 2. Describe the reasons for colonization of America (e.g., religious freedom, desire for land, economic opportunity, and a new life). 
PO 3. Compare the characteristics of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies: a. Colonial governments geographic influences, resources, and economic systems b. religious beliefs and social patterns 
PO 4. Describe the impact of key colonial figures (e.g., John Smith, William Penn, Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson, John Winthrop). 


 Concept 4: Revolution and New Nation

PO 1. Assess the economic, political, and social reasons for the American Revolution: a. British attempts to tax and regulate colonial trade as a result of the French and Indian War b. colonists’ reaction to British policy ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence 
PO 2. Analyze the effects of European involvement in the American Revolution on the outcome of the war. 
PO 3. Describe the significance of major events in the Revolutionary War: a. Lexington and Con cord b. Bunker Hill c. Saratoga d. writing and ratification of the Declaration of Independence e. Yorktown 
PO 4. Analyze how the new national government was created: a. Albany Plan of Union influenced by the Iroquois Confederation b. Articles of Confederation c. Constitutional Convention d. struggles over ratification of the Constitution e. creation of the Bill of Rights 
PO 5. Examine the significance of the following in the formation of a new nation: a. presidency of Georg e Washington b. economic policies of Alexander Hamilton c. creation of political parties under Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton d. the establishment of the Supreme Court as a coequal third branch of government under John Marshall with cases such as Marbury v. Madison. 
PO 6. Examine the experiences and perspectives of the following groups in the new nation: a. property owners b. African Americans c. women d. Native Americans e. indentured servants


Concept 5: Westward Expansion 

PO 1. Trace the growth of the American nation during the period of western expansion: a. North west Territory b. Louisiana Territory c. Florida d. Texas e. Oregon Country f. Mexican Cession g. Gadsden Purchase h. Alaska 
PO 2. Analyze how the following events affected the political transformation of the developing nation: a. Jefferson’s Presidency b. War of 1812 c. Jackson’s Presidency 
PO 3. Identify how economic incentives and geography influenced early American explorations: a. explorers (e.g., Lewis and Clark, Pike, Fremont) b. fur traders c. miners d. missionaries (e.g., Father Kino, Circuit Riders) 
PO 4. Describe the impact of European-American expansion on native peoples. 
PO 5. Describe the impact of the following aspects of the Industrial Revolution on the United States: a. transportation improvements (e.g., railroads, canals, steamboats) b. factory system manufacturing c. urbanization d. inventions (e.g., telegraph, cotton gin, interchangeable parts)


Concept 6: Civil War and Reconstruction 

PO 1. Explain the economic, social, and political causes of the Civil War: a. economic and social differences between the North, South, and West b. balance of power in the Senate (e.g., Missouri and 1850 Compromises) c. extension of slavery into the territories (e.g., Dred Scott Decision, the Kansas-Nebraska Act) d. role of abolitionists (e.g., Frederick Douglass and John Brown) e. debate over popular sovereignty/states’ rights f. Presidential election of 1860 
PO 2. Analyze aspects of the Civil War: a. changes in technology b. importance of resources c. turning points d. military and civilian leaders e. effect of the Emancipation Proclamation f. effect on the civilian populations 
PO 3. Analyze immediate and long term effects of Reconstruction in post-Civil War America: a. various plans for reconstruction of the South b. Lincoln’s assassination c. Johnson’s impeachment d. Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments e. resistance to and end of Reconstruction (e.g., Jim Crow laws, KKK, Compromise of 1877) 


Concept 7: Emergence of the Modern United States 

PO 1. Analyze how the following aspects of industria lization transformed the American economy beginning in the late 19th century: a. mass production b. monopolies and trusts (e.g., Robber Barons, Taft- Hartley Act) c. economic philosophies (e.g., laissez faire, Social Darwinism, free silver) d. labor movement e. trade 

PO 2. Assess how the following social developments influenced American society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: a. Civil Rights issues (e.g., Women’s Suffrage Movement, Dawes Act, Indian schools, lynching, Plessy v. Ferguson) b. changing patterns in Immigration (e.g., Ellis Island, Angel Island, Chinese Exclusion Act, Immigration Act of 1924) c. urbanization and social reform (e.g., health care, housing, food & nutrition, child labor laws) d. mass media (e.g., political cartoons, muckrakers, yellow journalism, radio) e. consumerism (e.g., advertising, standard of living, consumer credit) f. Roaring Twenties (e.g., Harlem Renaissance, leisure time, jazz, changed social mores) 
PO 3. Analyze events which caused a transformation of the United States during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: a. Indian Wars (e.g., Little Bighorn, Wounded Knee) b. Imperialism (e.g., Spanish American War, annexation of Hawaii, Philippine-American War) c. Progressive Movement (e.g., Sixteenth through Nineteenth Amendments, child labor) d. Teddy Roosevelt (e.g., conservationism, Panama Canal, national parks, trust busting) e. corruption (e.g., Tammany Hall, spoils system) f. World War I (e.g., League of Nations, Isolationism) g. Red Scare/Socialism h. Populism 


Concept 8: Great Depression and World War II 

PO 1. Describe causes and consequences of the Great Depression: a. economic causes of the Depression (e.g., economic policies of 1920s, investment patterns and stock market crash) b. Dust Bowl (e.g., environmental damage, internal migration) c. effects on society (e.g., fragmentation of families, Hoovervilles, unemployment, business failure, breadlines) d. changes in expectations of government (e.g., New Deal programs) 
PO 2. Describe the impact of American involvement in World War II: a. movement away from isolationism b. economic recovery from the Great Depression c. home front transformations in the roles of women and minorities d. Japanese, German, and Italian internments and POW camps e. war mobilization (e.g., Native American Code-Talkers, minority participation in military units, media portrayal) f. turning points such as Pearl Harbor, D-Day, Hiroshima/Nagasaki

Concept 9: Post War United States


PO 1. Analyze aspects of America’s post World War II foreign policy: a. international activism (e.g., Marshall Plan, United Nations, NATO) b. Cold War (e. g., domino theory, containment, Korea, Vietnam) c. Arms Race (e.g., Cuban Missile Crisis, SAL T) d. United States as a superpower (e.g., political intervention and humanitarian efforts) 
PO 2. Describe aspects of American post-World War II domestic policy: a. McCarthyism b. Civil Rights (e.g., Birmingham, 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, Constitutional Amendments) c. Supreme Court Decisions (e.g., the Warren and Burger Courts) d. Executive Power (e.g., War Powers Act, Watergate) e. social reforms Great Society and War on Poverty f. Space Race and technological developments 
PO 3. Describe aspects of post-World War II American society: a. postwar prosperity (e.g., growth of suburbs, baby boom, GI Bill) b. popular culture (e.g., conformity v. counterculture, mass-media) c. protest movements (e.g., anti-war, women’s rights, civil rights, farm workers, César Chavez) d. assassinations (e.g., John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr., Robert F. Kennedy, Malcolm X) e. shift to increased immigration from Latin America and Asia


Concept 10: Contemporary United States 

PO 1. Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps). 
PO 2. Identify the connection between current and historical events and issues using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps). 
PO 3. Describe how key political, social, environmental, and economic events of the late 20th century and early 21st century (e.g., Watergate, OPEC/oil crisis, Central American wars/Iran-Contra, End of Cold War, first Gulf War, September 11)