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英语10,11&12
Overview 
KAP’s English Language Arts Standards work together in a clear progression from 10th through 12th grade. This document provides a brief overview of the skills a student will learn at each grade. Each standard builds on the standard that came before and towards the standard that comes in the next grade level. Each standard is expected to be taught as appropriate for the grade-level. Some standards appear to have similar wording at multiple grade levels; however, it is understood that they are to be applied with increased focus to progressively more challenging texts and tasks.

 Reading Standards for Literature:
     • Independently and proficiently read grade-appropriate and increasingly complex literature from a variety of genres    
     • Critically analyze elements of literature: plot, theme, characters, setting, figurative language, tone, conflicts, point of view, and author’s purpose 
     • Use details to cite and analyze examples from the text 
     • Analyze how an author’s choices about structure, order of events, or manipulation of time create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise 
     • Analyze author’s word choice and intent to examine impact on meaning and tone 
Reading Standards for Informational: 
     • Analyze supporting details to infer meaning and determine main ideas and author’s purpose 
     • Analyze and synthesize texts to determine how structure and organization impact the presentation of information and its effectiveness in conveying 
         information and support claims 
     • Support their analysis with strong textual evidence 
 Writing Standards:
     • Craft quality argumentative, informative, and narrative writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences, both formal and informal 
     • Integrate and synthesize information and evidence into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoid plagiarism, and follow a standard format for
         citation appropriate for the task and audience 
     • Plan, draft, revise, and edit writing in an effective and strategic manner 
Speaking and Listening Standards: 
     • Demonstrate collaborative discussion/listening skills in a variety of settings, both formal and informal 
     • Extend speaking and listening skills to include paraphrasing, summarizing, and directly citing information from a variety of sources 
     • Present information using various forms of multimedia technology appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience 
Language Standards: 
     • Demonstrate mastery of grade level conventions (grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling) 
     • Develop and utilize knowledge of Standard English conventions strategically in a variety of communication tasks for different purposes and audiences; Write
        and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual 
     • Use parallel structure and various types of phrases and clauses to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations 
     • Determine the meanings of unknown words and figurative language using a variety of strategies

Reading Standards for Literature 

 Key Ideas and Details

RL.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

RL.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. 

RL.3 Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. 

Craft and Structure 

RL.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone. 

RL.5 Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it, and manipulate time create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise. 

RL.6 Analyze how points of view and/or cultural experiences are reflected in works of literature, drawing from a variety of literary texts. 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
 
RL.7 Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment. 

RL.8 (Not applicable to literature) 

RL.9 Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

RL.10 By the end of the year, proficiently and independently read and comprehend literature, including stories, drama, and poetry, in a text complexity range determined by qualitative and quantitative measures appropriate to grades 10, 11 and 12. By the end of each year, proficiently and independently read and comprehend literature, including stories, drama, and poetry, in a text complexity range determined by qualitative and quantitative measures appropriate to each respective grade.



Reading Standards for Informational Text 

Key Ideas and Details

RI.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

RI.2 Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. 

RI.3 Analyze how the author constructs an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them. 

Craft and Structure
 
RI.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone. 

RI.5 Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter). 

RI.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose. 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
 
RI.7 Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account. 

RI.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. 

RI.9 Analyze seminal/primary documents of historical and literary significance, including how they address related themes and concepts. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

RI.10 By the end of the year, proficiently and independently read and comprehend informational texts and nonfiction in a text complexity range determined by qualitative and quantitative measures appropriate to each grade. By the end of the year, proficiently and independently read and comprehend informational texts and nonfiction in a text complexity range determined by qualitative and quantitative measures appropriate to grades 10, 11 and 12.


Writing Standards 

Text Types and Purposes 

W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. 
   a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among
       claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. 
   b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates
       the audience’s knowledge level and concerns. 
   c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between
       reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. 
   d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. 
   e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. 

W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. 
   a. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings),
       graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. 
   b. Develop the topic with well‐chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples
       appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic. 
   c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and
       concepts. d. Use precise language and domain‐specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic. 
   e. Establish and maintain a formal style and an appropriate tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. 
   f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the
      significance of the topic). 

W.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well‐chosen details, and well‐structured event sequences. 
   a. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator
       and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events. 
   b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. 
   c. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole. 
   d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or 
        characters. 
   e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Production and Distribution of Writing 

W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade‐ specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
 
W.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 10, 11 and 12.)
 
W.6 Use technology, including the internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. 

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
 
W.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self‐generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
 
W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
 
W.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. a. Apply Reading standards to literature. b. Apply Reading standards to informational and nonfiction text. 



Range of Writing 

W.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking and Listening Standards 

Comprehension and Collaboration 

SL.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one‐on‐ one, in groups, and teacher‐led) with diverse partners on grade 10, 11 and 12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 
a. Come to discussions prepared having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and
   other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well‐ reasoned exchange of ideas. 
b. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision‐making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, and presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed. 
c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions. 
d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views
            and understanding and make new connections based on the evidence and reasoning presented. 

SL.2 Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media and formats, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source. 

SL.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, use of evidence, and use of rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. 

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 

SL.4 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 

SL.5 Make strategic use of digital media in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. 

SL.6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Language Standards 

Conventions of Standard English 

L.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 
   a. Use parallel structure. 
   b. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, and absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative,
       adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations. 

L.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. 
   a. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses. 
   b. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation. 
   c. Use correct spelling. 

Knowledge of Language 

L.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. a. Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual. 

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 

L.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple‐meaning words and phrases based on grades 10, 11 and 12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. 
   a. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate,
       advocacy). 
   b. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or
       phrase. 
   c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or
       determine or clarify its precise meaning, it’s part of speech, or its etymology. 
   d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase. 


L.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. 
   a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text. 
   b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. 

L.6 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain‐specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.